• Address: N0.2500,Xiupu Road, Kangqiao
    Industrial Area, Pudong, Shanghai

  • Call Us: (+86) 021-51095338
    [email protected]

Graphite negative electrode materials start using new national standard

With the rise of the lithium ion battery industry, anode materials also flourished. In particular, graphite material has become an ideal lithium battery anode material because of its good conductivity, high crystallinity, stable layered structure, suitable for lithium intercalation-deintercalation, etc. In order to promote the development of the lithium ion battery negative electrode industry, China has successively promulgated relevant standards since 2009, involving raw materials, products and testing methods. It has proposed specific indicators for various parameters and provided corresponding testing method, and also is instructive on the actual production and application of anode materials.
From February 1, 2020, GB / T 24533-2019 "lithium-ion battery graphite negative electrode material" will officially replace GB / T 24533-2009 "lithium-ion battery graphite negative electrode material". This standard specifies the terms and definitions, classifications and codes, technical requirements, test methods and inspection rules of graphite anode materials for lithium ion batteries. It is suitable for graphite negative electrode material used as negative electrode in lithium ion battery.

Graphite negative electrode materials for lithium ion battery

Drafting units

GB / T 24533-2019 "lithium-ion battery graphite negative electrode material" is reported under the jurisdiction of TC183 (National Technical Committee 183 on Steel of Standardization Administration of China), TC183SC15 (Subcommittee 15 on carbons of National Technical Committee 183 on Steel of Standardization Administration of China), and the competent department is China Iron and Steel Industry Association. The main drafting units are Shenzhen BTR New Energy Materials Co., Ltd., Guangdong Dongdao New Energy Co., Ltd., BTR (Jiangsu) New Material Technology Co., Ltd., Huizhou BTR New Material Technology Co., Ltd, BTR Ltd., Tianjin BTR New Energy Materials Co., Ltd., China Metallurgical Information and Standardization Institute.

Terms and definitions

The graphite negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries uses a crystalline layered graphite-based carbon material. It works in synergy with the cathode material to achieve multiple charging and discharging of the lithium-ion battery. During the charging process, the graphite negative electrode accepts lithium ions embedded, and during the discharging process, it releases the lithium ions. The theoretical capacity of graphite-based anode materials is 372 (mA • h) / g, grayish black or steel gray, with metallic luster.

Product Categories

Graphite anode materials for lithium ion batteries are divided into three categories: natural graphite, artificial graphite, and composite graphite. Among them, natural graphite is represented by NG (Natural Graphite); artificial graphite is represented by AG (Artificial Graphite); composite graphite contains at least two components of natural graphite and artificial graphite and is represented by CG (Composite Graphite). The artificial graphite can be further divided into the following three types:

(1) Mesophase carbon microsphere artificial graphite, expressed as CMB;

(2) Needle coke artificial graphite, represented by NAG;

(3) Petroleum coke artificial graphite represented by CPAG.

Table 1 Grades of graphite anode materials for lithium ion batteries
Grade Grade First discharge Specific capacity

(mA • h) / g

First coulomb efficiency% Powder compacting density

g / cm3

Degree of graphitization

%

Fixed carbon content

%

Magnetic substance content ppm Iron content ppm
 NG i ≥360.0 ≥95.0 ≥1.65 ≥96 ≥99.97 ≤0.1 ≤10
n ≥360.0 ≥93.0 ≥1.55 ≥94 ≥99.95 ≤0.1 ≤30
m ≥345.0 ≥91.0 ≥1.45 ≥92 ≥99.90 ≤0.5 ≤50
AG CMB i ≥350.0 ≥95.0 ≥1.50 ≥94 ≥99.97 ≤0.1 ≤20
n ≥340.0 ≥94.0 ≥1.40 ≥90 ≥99.95 ≤0.5 ≤50
m ≥340.1 ≥90.0 ≥1.20 ≥90 ≥99.70 ≤1.5 ≤100
NAG i ≥340.2 ≥94.0 ≥1.25 ≥94 ≥99.97 ≤0.1 ≤20
n ≥340.3 ≥93.0 ≥1.20 ≥90 ≥99.95 ≤0.1 ≤50
m ≥340.4 ≥90.0 ≥1.10 ≥85 ≥99.70 ≤1.5 ≤100
 CPAG i ≥340.5 ≥95.0 ≥1.40 ≥94 ≥99.97 ≤0.1 ≤20
n ≥340.6 ≥93.0 ≥1.20 ≥90 ≥99.95 ≤0.1 ≤50
m ≥340.7 ≥90.0 ≥1.00 ≥85 ≥99.70 ≤1.5 ≤100
CG i ≥340.8 ≥94.0 ≥1.60 ≥94 ≥99.97 ≤0.1 ≤20
n ≥340.9 ≥92.0 ≥1.50 ≥92 ≥99.95 ≤0.1 ≤30
m ≥340.10 ≥91.0 ≥1.40 ≥90 ≥99.70 ≤0.5 ≤50
Note1: The product must meet all the indicators of this grade of product, otherwise it will not be classified as this grade.
Note2: RoHS is the certification which meets the content of Restricted substance.

Product code
The product code is composed of the category code, grade code, D50, and first discharge specific capacity in order, that is, the category code-grade code-D50-first discharge specific capacity. See Table 2 for specific examples.

Table 2: Product code and explanation
Sample Explanation
NG- I -18-360 NG natural graphite, grade I lithium ion battery graphite negative material, D50 = (18.0 ± 2.0) m m, the first discharge specific capacity is 360 (mA-h) / g
AG-CMB-1 -22-350 AG-CMB artificial graphite mesophase, grade I lithium ion battery graphite negative electrode material, 50 = (22.0 soil 2.0) pm, first discharge specific capacity is 350 (mA-h) / g
AG-NAG-1-18-355 AG-NAG artificial graphite needle-shaped coke, class I lithium ion battery graphite negative electrode material, 050 = (18.01 2.0) #m, first discharge specific capacity is 355 (mA • h) / g
CG- I -17-355 CG composite graphite, grade I lithium ion battery graphite negative material, D50 = (17.0 ± 2.0) pm, first discharge specific capacity is 355 (mA-h) / g

Technical requirements
For technical requirements, the appearance is a powder of grayish black or steel gray with metallic luster. As for the physical and chemical indexes, the physical and chemical indexes of graphite-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries should meet the requirements in Table 1. If there are special requirements, it should be determined through consultation between the supply and demand sides.

Table 3 Technical specifications of typical natural graphite lithium-ion battery anode materials

Technical Indicator Product code
NG-I-19-360 NG-II-13-365 NG-III-23-345
Theatrical

performance

 Size distribution D10, um 12.0±2.0 9.0±2.0 14.0±2.0
D50, um 19.0±2.0 13.0±2.0 23.0±2.0
D90, um 28.0±3.0 33.0±3.0 33.0 士 3.0
D max, um ≤50 ≤70 ≤50
Fixed carbon,% ≥99.97 ≥99.97 99.95 〜99.90
Moisture,% ≤0.2 ≤0.2 ≤0.2
pH 8±1 5.5±1 5.5±1
Tap density, g/cm3 ≥1.20 ≥1.00 ≥1.05
Powder compacting density, g/cm3 ≥1.65 1.55〜1.65 1.45〜1.55
Actual density, g/cm3 2.24 ±0.02 2.24±0.02 2.22±0.02
Specific surface area, m3/g ≤1.5 ≤2.5 5.0±0.5
Interlayer spacingd002, nm 0.335 7± 0.0003 0.335 8±0.0003 0.335 8±0.0003
Electrochemical property First coulomb efficiency% ≥95.0 ≥93.0 ≥91.0
First discharge Specific capacity (mAh) / g ≥360.0 ≥365.0 ≥345.0
Trace metallic element

Magnetic materials

Trace metallic element

Fe, ppm ≤10 ≤30 ≤50
Na, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cr, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cu, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Ni, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Al, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mo, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Magnetic materials Fe+Cr+Ni+Zn+Co, ppm ≤0.1 ≤0.1 0.1 〜0.5
Sulfur content S, ppm ≤20 ≤20 ≤20

 

Table 3 (Continue)
Technical description Product code
NG-1-19-360 NG-II-13-365 NG-III-23-345
Restricted substances Cadmium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Lead and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mercury and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Hexavalent chromium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Polybrominated biphenyl, PPM ≤5 ≤5 W5
Polybrominated biphenyl aldehyde, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Anionic F-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
Cl-, ppm ≤30 ≤30 ≤30
Br-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
NO3-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
SO4-, ppm ≤50 ≤50 ≤50
Organic matter Acetone, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Isopropanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Toluene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethyl benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Xylene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
 

 

Table 4 Technical specifications of cathode materials for typical artificial graphite lithium ion batteries

Technical indicator Product code
AG-CMR- I -24-355 AG-NAG- II -20-340 AG-PAG-III-18-300
Theorical performance Size distribution D10, um 17.0±2.0 9.0 ±2.0 7.0 ± 2.0
D50, um 24.5±2.0 20.0 ±2.0 18.0±2.0
D90, um 35.0±3.0 40.0±3.0 35.0±3.0
D max, um ≤60 ≤70 C75
Fixed carbon,% ≥99.70 ≥99.95 ≥99.70
Moisture,% ≤0.2 ≤0.2 ≤0.2
pH 8±1 5.5 ±1 5.5±1
Tap density, g/cm3 ≥1.30 ≥1.00 ≥1.00
Powder compacting density, g/cm3 ≥1.60 ≥1.20 1.30 〜1.45
Actual density, g/cm3 2.24±0.03 2.23±O.O3 2.23±0.03
Specific surface area, m3/g 0.8±0.5 4.0 士 0.5 4.0±0.5
Interlayer spacingd002, nm 0.3357 ±0.000 3 0.335 8±0.000 3 0.336 0±0.000 3

 

Technical indicator Product code
AG-CMB- I -24-355 AG-NAG- II -20-340 AG-PAG-III-18-300
Electrochemical property First coulomb efficiency% ≥95.0 ≥93.0 ≥90.0
First discharge Specific capacity (mAh) / g ≥355.0 ≥340.0 ≥320.0
Trace metallic element

Magnetic materials

Trace metallic element

Fe, ppm ≤20 ≤50 ≤100
Na, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cr, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cu, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Ni, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Al, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mo, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Magnetic materials Fe+Cr+Ni+Zn+Co, ppm <0.1 <0.1 0.5 〜1.5
Sulfur content S, ppm ≤20 ≤20 ≤20
Electrochemical property Cadmium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Lead and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mercury and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Hexavalent chromium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Polybrominated biphenyl, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Polybrominated biphenyl aldehyde, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Anionic F-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
Cl-, ppm ≤30 ≤30 ≤30
Br-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
NO3-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
SO4-, ppm ≤50 ≤50 ≤50
Organic matter Acetone, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Isopropanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Toluene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethyl benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Xylene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1

 

Table 5 Technical indicators of cathode materials for typical composite graphite lithium ion batteries
Technical indicator Product code
CG- I -17-355 CG-II-18-345 CG-III-20-330
Theatrical

performance

 Size distribution D10, um 9.0±2.0 8.0±2.0 9.0±2.0
D50, um 17.0±2.0 18.0±2.0 20.0±2.0
D90, um 35.0±3.0 35.0 ±3.0 38.0 士 3.0
D max, um ≤70 ≤70 ≤60
Fixed carbon,% ≥99.70 $99.95 ≥99.70
Moisture,% ≤0.2 ≤0.2 ≤0.2
pH 8±1 8±1 5.5±1
Tap density, g/cm3 ≥1.10 ≥1.00 ≥1.00
Powder compacting density, g/cm3 ≥1.60 ≥1.50 1.30 〜1.40
Actual density, g/cm3 2.24±0.02 2.23±0.03 2.23±0.03
Specific surface area, m3/g ≤2.0 3.0±0.5 3.5±0.5
Interlayer spacingd002, nm 0.3357 土 0.000 3 0.335 8±0.000 3 0.336 0 土 0.000 3
Electrochemical property First coulomb efficiency% ≥94.0 ≥92.0 291.0
First discharge Specific capacity (mAh) / g ≥355.0 ≥345.0 ≥330.0

 

Trace metallic element

Magnetic materials

Trace metallic element

Fe, ppm ≤20 ≤30 ≤50
Na, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cr, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Cu, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Ni, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Al, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mo, ppm ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Magnetic materials Fe+Cr+Ni+Zn+Co, ppm <0.1 <0.1 0.1 〜0.5
Sulfur content S, ppm ≤20 ≤20 ≤20
Electrochemical property Cadmium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Lead and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Mercury and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Hexavalent chromium and its compounds, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Polybrominated biphenyl, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5
Polybrominated biphenyl aldehyde, PPM ≤5 ≤5 ≤5

 

Technical indicator Product code
CG- I -17-355 CG II -18-345 CG-III-20-330
Anionic F-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
Cl-, ppm ≤30 ≤30 ≤30
Br-, ppm ≤10 ≤10 ≤10
NO3-, ppm ≤10 Q0 ≤10
SO4-, ppm ≤50 ≤50 ≤50
Organic matter Acetone, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Isopropanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Toluene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethyl benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Xylene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Benzene, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1
Ethanol, PPM ≤1 ≤1 ≤1

Since the development of carbon materials for lithium ion batteries, graphite materials have been the mainstream anode materials due to their special microstructure, mature production and modification processes, and large raw material reserves, and will continue for a long time. The launch of the new national standard has played a guiding role in the actual production and application of graphite anode materials, which is conducive to its development.

Submit your requirement below for mineral processing proposal!

Please contact whatsapp number via +86 13918045927 for detailed information!